The final vote was 47-52.
A number of Democrats have been wary of the move and are signaling they could also vote for such an amendment.
At a news conference earlier Tuesday, Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, a Kentucky Republican, indicated the Covid relief package will need to include an amendment vote related to Title 42 and they’ll need to reach a deal to process several other amendments in order for the legislation to move forward.
“I think there’ll have to be an amendment on Title 42 in order to move the bill,” he said. “There’s several other amendments that we’re going to want to offer, and so we’ll need to enter into some kind of agreement to process these amendments in order to go forward with the bill.”
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer expressed frustration after the vote on Tuesday.
“Vaccines, therapeutics and testing were negotiated in good faith … and they should not be held hostage to extraneous unrelated issues,” Schumer said. “This is too important for the health of the American people.”
“I want there to be no mistake about what just happened here on the Senate floor. Republicans blocked a bipartisan bill that would provide vaccines, testing and therapeutics for the American people,” Schumer said.
The New York Democrat tried to move the process along on the relief package, but the failed procedural vote signals senators have still not yet worked out an agreement to move forward.
Republican Sen. John Cornyn of Texas told CNN the vote was going to fail “so we can have a negotiation.”
Schumer added in his floor remarks on Tuesday, “There’s still some time. I hope my Republican colleagues change their tune, quickly.”
CNN’s Manu Raju, Katie Lobosco and Lauren Fox contributed to this report.